The pancreas, made up of two distinct glands intermingled, is located adjacent to the upper part of the small intestine. One of the glands is known as the islets of Langerhans.  It is part of the endocrine gland system and produces:
glucagon, the alpha cells, which increases glucose in the blood;
insulin, the beta cells, which serves to decrease glucose in the blood;
somatostatin, which regulates the production of glucagon and insulin; and

PP cells which secrete pancreatic polypeptides.
     The other gland, the pancreatic acini,  is part of the exocrine gland system, serving the digestive system by manufacturing pancreatic juice that contain various digestive enzymes. These enzymes pass to the small intestine to further break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats which came from the stomach and are on their way to the liver.  In ISSUE 8 we discussed the role of one of these digestive enzymes, the proteoeolytic cells, in protein digestion and the disease of cancer.
       In this issue we will explain the role of the islets of Langerhans in carbohydrate metabolism. Carbohydrates, as discussed in Issue #2, are classified as sugars, starches and fiber. Simple carbohydrates include fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and honey, each containing one or two sugars in the molecule. Simple carbohydrates which have vitamins and minerals are found in vegetables, fruits and milk products. Those which do not have vitamins and minerals, called refined or processed sugars, are found in table sugar, cake, candy, syrups and soft drinks. They are called “empty calories” and can lead to weight gain or, ultimately, obesity. See ISSUE 13, on Obesity. 
            Complex carbohydrates, those with three or more sugars in the molecule, also called starches, include bread, cereal, starchy vegetables, legumes, rice and pasta. Complex carbohydrates usually release the sugar more slowly, in the process of digestion and absorption. Too much carbohydrate leads to obesity; too little carbohydrate intake, as in Atkin’s Diet, leads to the increased intake of fats and proteins to make up the total calorie intake, a very dangerous measure. I recommend that about 66% of total caloric intake should be from carbohydrates, preferably from starches, whole grains, beans, peas, seeds and nuts; and from naturally occurring sugars-- fruits and vegetables.  The balance of calories should come from fats (about 17%) and protein (about 17%). Once again, the main purpose of the islets of Langerhans, in conjunction with certain liver enzymes, is to manufacture insulin, which processes sugars in the blood. The normal functioning is called glucose metabolism. When there is a malfunction of these cells, sugars cannot be processed properly, and the resulting disease is called diabetes.
          Diabetes can be broken down into two kinds, called Type 1 and Type 2.  Type 1 diabetes is generally known as juvenile diabetes and is generally diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. Some believe that it is caused by a lack of zinc in the diet during the period of pregnancy, leading to the lack of development of the islets of Langerhans. In true Type 1, the patient must have daily insulin injections to survive. In recent years, Medicine is attempting, with some measure of success, to transplant healthy islets into certain Type 1 diabetics.
        Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult onset diabetes, can be divided into two kinds– the gradual cessation of insulin production by the beta cells, and insulin resistance which involves not only the beta cells but also each cell of the body. In this type, the cells become resistant to insulin, thus preventing the normal breakdown of sugar in the cells where it is utilized as energy. Type 2 diabetes is treated by taking tablets, known as oral hypoglycemic agents, or by taking daily insulin injections.  Some people are able to control their condition to a certain extent by eating low carbohydrate diets, but this means that they must increase their fat and/or protein intake above what the body can utilize safely (see Issue #2).
         It is known that being overweight or obese puts a heavy strain on the beta cells to manufacture insulin because of the added amounts of sugars that are eaten. Conversely, overweight diabetics have been known to reduce their need for injected insulin or oral hypoglycemic tablets by reducing their weight.
       What does not appear to be known is that Type 2 diabetes can be treated by taking certain vitamins and minerals which appear to be lacking in the diet.
        Why are they lacking? Because either they are no longer found in the food we eat, or they are excreted from the body before they have the opportunity to nourish the various organs, including the pancreas.  By eating significant amounts of refined or processed sugars, found in table sugar, cake, candy, cookies, syrups and soft drinks, which have no vitamins, minerals or other nutrients in them, people drastically reduce the amount of fruits, vegetables and other foods that do contain these nutrients.
         How are they excreted before they have the opportunity to nourish the various organs? By taking diuretics, substances which excrete fluids from the body, found in some high blood pressure medicines, drinking large quantities of water, fruit or vegetable juices, or caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, soft drinks or chocolate. (Remember that “decaffeinated” beverages still contain some caffeine, enough to do harm. Also remember that green tea contains caffeine and is therefore also harmful.)
        Attention should be called to the fact that because the pancreas has two separate areas which are used in the process of metabolism and yet can become diseased (diabetes and cancer) if not properly nourished. Similarly, the same vitamins and minerals are used to nourish both areas. These are Vitamins A, B Complex, C Complex, and the minerals zinc, chromium and copper. Once diabetes has been diagnosed, it is essential to follow the ABC Diet, supplementing it with a high potency vitamin and mineral  capsule, which I call DOC,(Daily One Capsule by Twinlab, Inc., or a similar product,) to help reverse the disease.
       Two disease conditions similar to diabetes are hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). They can often be treated successfully by following A-E. 
       I am reminded that, during my career as a pharmacist, an eight year-old female client suddenly became ill with hypoglycemia.  The only thing that changed in her lifestyle was that, a month before, her physician had prescribed a daily vitamin-fluoride tablet. I reminded the doctor that fluorides can cause hypoglycemia, so he immediately discontinued the tablet.  I recommended a suitable vitamin and mineral preparation in addition to the ABC Diet, and within six months, her hypoglycemia disappeared. 
       If hypoglycemia can be caused by fluoride usage, then this is one more reason that no one should ever use fluoridated drinking water, fluoride tooth paste or mouthwashes, electing instead to eliminate simple sugars from the diet, which weaken dental enamel,  and to eat sufficient quantities of food or supplements containing magnesium and Vitamin B6, which strengthen dental enamel and prevent cavities.
      Finally, we get to METABOLIC SYNDROME, which is the belief that the frequency of adverse cardiovascular outcomes (aneurysms, kidney failure, stroke, etc.) and the incidence of coronary events (heart artery blockage) can be predicted by waist circumference, or how fat around the waist a patient is. It is directly connected to whether a patient is a diabetic and needs insulin injections.   Yes, I can agree with all that, but I believe that THE ABC DIET + Exercise will go a long way toward reversing this syndrome.
     Here is my explanation as to why so many teenagers develop Type 1 diabetes during the early teens, which most often must be treated by daily insulin injections. 
1. Insulin had been naturally produced during the pre-teen years.   
2. the level of parental supervision in the teenage years is always reduced to encourage the teenagers to make mature decisions, so the parents do not have as much control over junk food consumption [read that as “There is a greater intake of items on the “A” list”] ,
3. Is it not possible, by strictly following the ABC DIET, taking care to eliminate all those items on the “A” list, and supplementing their diet with a high potency vitamin and mineral capsule, that the beta cells of the pancreas will, once again, be nourished sufficiently to produce natural insulin again?  I think it’s definitely worth a try.
         Now is the time for that parent-teenager talk about more than just the birds and the bees.
         I believe that the same would be true to prevent teenage suicides!
         Attention all diabetics of any age: It’s worth a try for you, too.


 Summary of the ABC Diet. (For a complete explanation, see ISSUE #2.)
“A” for Avoiding chemical poisons normally considered harmless but which are really harmful:
coffee, tea, soft drinks and energy drinks, chocolate, tobacco, alcohol, legal and illegal drugs, artificial sweeteners, coloring agents, preservatives, flavoring agents, white flour, fluorides, sugar, insecticides and more than a small amount of salt.
“B” for Be Sure to Eat some raw, uncooked vegetables or fruit, with each meal, in addition to cooked vegetables or fruits. Should eat whole grains cereals, brown organic rice, wheat, barley, oats, corn, beans, legumes, peas, seeds and nuts. May also eat some whole grain wheat bread, and pasta. Although they do have some fat and protein, the above are considered CARBOHYDRATES, the major source of energy for the body.
       Up to, but not more than one-sixth of the daily calories may come from FATS, such as butter and oils from palm, coconut, olive, sunflower, soybean. Fats are important raw materials for many endocrine hormones, including male and female hormones, and cholesterol for healthy nails, skin and hair. Fats also serve as an extra energy source and transport Vitamins A, D, E and K around the body to where they are needed.
       No more than one-sixth of the daily calories may come from PROTEIN, which may be from animal sources, such as red meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese, or from vegetable sources, such as soy protein or a blend of pea, rice, or potato protein, rice bran, corn bran, apple and oat fiber, mushroom extract and other ingredients. Proteins serve as building blocks for the body. 
      Fortunately for the body, where good nutrition is present and through chemical processes, carbohydrates, fats and proteins may be transformed into each other when needed. Enzymes, mostly made up of protein, are catalysts, substances which help chemical reactions to be created or speeded up by providing a substance which itself is not changed in the process. In order to digest proteins, the enzymes pepsin, trypsin, proteolytic and certain liver enzymes must be present. We must eat fresh sources of enzymes, found mostly in raw vegetables and fresh fruit, on a daily basis, to enable the body to do its job of living– pumping blood, breathing, thinking, moving, digesting, excreting, and so on.
“C” for Complementing (or supplementing) the diet with the correct supplement, or supplements, to prevent or postpone disease, or to modify a disease of which we show symptoms.


Joel's Newsletter


Discussion From an Independent Viewpoint

All opinions expressed in this Newsletter are mine alone, based on over thirty years' experience in the Nutrition field.   Those who would like to follow what is recommended here, do so at their own risk, and keep in touch with your doctor.


Shorthand: “A-E” stands for the ABC DIET + Exercise;


“DOC” stands for Daily One Capsule by Twinlabs, Inc.,




Volume 2 Issue 10         DIABETEs



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Issue No. 1
Introduction to
   Health Issues

Issue No. 2
The ABC Diet

Issue No. 3

Issue No. 4

Issue No. 5
   American Health

Issue No. 6

Issue No. 7

Issue No. 8

Issue No. 9


Issue No. 10

Issue No. 11
Nervous System
   and Mental
   Health Problems

Issue No. 12

Issue No. 13

Issue No. 14

Issue No. 15
Our Nation's
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